Archive for the ‘Work’ Category

Using Rocker to build Liberty images from Java source

Saturday, September 24th, 2016

Looking for solutions to my archive extraction problem brought me to look at the Rocker project from Grammarly. I’d looked at it before but not in any great detail. In a nutshell, it aims to extend the Dockerfile syntax to overcome some of its current limitations. Although not an option for me (because I can’t depend anything beyond the standard Docker toolset) the Rocker solution to my earlier problem would be as simple as follows:

The extra syntax here is the MOUNT command which follows the same syntax as the --volume flag on docker run. As the Grammarly team point out, there are trade-offs here which help to explain why the Docker maintainers are reluctant to add volume mounts to docker build. Here, changes to the contents of the mounted directories do not result in the cache being busted.

Anyway, this post is meant to be about a different problem: building Docker images where the chosen language requires compilation e.g. Java. One approach (that taken by OpenShift’s source-to-image) is to add the source to an image that contains all of the necessary pieces to build, package and run it. As shown in Jamie’s WASdev post, for Liberty that might mean putting Maven and a full JDK in to the image. I’m not a fan off this approach: I prefer to end up with an image that only contains what is needed to run the application.

The following shows how this might look using Rocker:

Here we’re building one of the Micro Profile samples (which uses Maven) and then creating an image with the resulting WAR and the new WebSphere Liberty Micro Profile image. You’ll note that there are two FROM statements in the file. First we build on the maven image to create the WAR file. We then use the Rocker EXPORT command to make the WAR file available to subsequent build steps. The second part of the build then starts with the websphere-liberty:microProfile image, imports the WAR and tags it. Building, running and then calling the application is then as simple as follows:

The other thing of note is that we’ve used the MOUNT command to create a volume for the Maven cache. The volume is tied to this Rockerfile so, if you run rocker build --no-cache . you’ll see that it rebuilds the images from scratch but Maven does not need to download the dependencies again.

The MOUNT is also a great way to overcome the long-running issue of how to provide credentials required to access resources at build time without them ending up in the final image. Other nice features include the ATTACH command which effectively allows you to set a breakpoint in your Rockerfile, and the fact that the Rockerfile is pre-processed as a golang template allowing much more advanced substitutions than with Docker’s build arguments.

Unpacking an archive as a non-root user during docker build

Friday, September 23rd, 2016

The way we build our WebSphere traditional Docker images is as a two-step process. First we install the products using Installation Manager and generate a tar file containing the installed product. Then we suck that tar file in to a clean image so that the resulting image does not contain all the cruft left lying around from the install process. (Not including Installation Manager in the final image also helps to reinforce that these images are intended to be immutable.)

The ADD Dockerfile command is very convenient for copying in a tar file from the context and unpacking it, all in one atomic operation. Unfortunately the ADD command ignores the current user and always unpacks as root. (Aside: Docker recently re-opened the proposal created by IBMer Megan Kostick to address this problem.) You could run a chown following the ADD but this results in all the files being copied in to a new layer (not cool when the contents of your tar file weighs in at 1.5GB!). Our initial starting point was to make sure that all the files already had the right ownership when they are added to the tar file. This involved creating the same user/group in the initial image and relying on getting the same uid/guid in the eventual image, something I wasn’t entirely happy with.

A related problem that we had run in to elsewhere was that the copy and unpack magic of ADD doesn’t extend to zip files, a format in which many of our install binaries are found. Where those binaries are already hosted somewhere, it’s simple enough to use wget or curl to pull the files, unpack, and perform any necessary cleanup as part of a RUN command. The obvious solution to my local tar or zip file was to host the file somehow. I decided to spin up a python container to serve up the files as follows:

That URL can then be consumed in a subsequent build. For example, if I had example.tar.gz in the directory on the host, I could unpack as the user/group foo:bar in my image with the following Dockerfile:

To build the image, we then just need to pass in the URL as a build argument and, when we’re done, we can clean up the python container:

The result of all of this is that we then get the default non-root behavior of tar which is to unpack as the current user.

Containerizing background processes

Thursday, September 22nd, 2016

The lifetime of a Docker container is tied to the lifetime of the PID 1 process executed when the container was started. WebSphere Liberty has a convenient server run command to run the application server in the foreground. Sadly, that’s not the case with the traditional WebSphere’s startServer.sh script which simply starts the server process in the background and then exits. To ensure that the container didn’t exit as well, we started out with a script something along the following lines:

where server1.pid is a file created by the server process (but not immediately, hence the initial sleep). That successfully kept the container alive but failed to allow it to shutdown cleanly! A docker stop, for example, would wait for the default timeout period and then kill the process. Not great for any in-flight transactions! The solution was simple enough, add a trap to catch any interrupt and issue the command to stop the server:

All was well with the world until we then enabled server security by default. Unfortunately with security enabled the stopServer.sh script requires credentials to be provided and there is no way to get those credentials to the script. The solution was to switch to sending the interrupt signal to the server process. I also disliked that initial sleep so I decided to retrieve the process ID via ps (something that’s safer in a container given the limited process tree) and then wait whilst the processes directory exists in /proc. The resulting code looked along the following lines:

Note the use of a function so that $PID is not evaluated at the point the trap is set up.
Another disadvantage with having the server process in the background is the lack of output in the container logs. I decided to rectify that whilst I was at it by adding calls to tail the server log files:

The significance of the tail parameters is as follows. The capital F indicates that the attempts to follow the log file should be retried. This ensures that we continue to follow the latest file when the logs roll over. The pid parameter ensures that the background tail processes exit along with the server process. The -n +0 indicates that the output should start at the beginning of the file so that entries output whilst the startServer.sh script is running are not lost. As previously noted, Docker preserves stderr across the remote API so we make sure to direct the output from SystemErr.log there.

Container Camp III

Saturday, September 10th, 2016

Container CampOn Friday I attended my third Container Camp UK. The venue had changed once more, this time taking up residence in the Picturehouse Central cinema by Piccadilly Circus. As with last year, this meant comfy seats which, contrary to what you might think, actually makes it easier to stay awake! In another repeat from 2015, we started late and connecting to the projector proved problematic throughout the day. This time we had a selection of shiny MacBooks with their new-fangled USB-C connectors to thank!

The great thing about this conference is its independence which means that the sessions during the day covered the complete gamut of container technologies. Here’s a quick run down of the day:

  • Craig Box from Google kicked the day off. His session was billed as covering Kubernetes 1.3 but, as he pointed out, that was old hat with 1.4 due to release within a week. As such, he spent much of the pitch talking about what was coming up. To me it was a reminder to have a play with deploying various WebSphere topologies with Pet Sets.
  • Next up was Ben Firshman, repeating his serverless app talk from DockerCon. I keep meaning to ask whether he knows that OpenWhisk supports Docker containers as actions.
  • Michael Hausenblas from Mesosphere came after the break. He was talking about DRAX, his chaos testing tool for DC/OS.
  • Michael was following by Nishant Totla, giving his first conference presentation. He’s an engineer at Docker working on swarmkit, with orchestration in Docker 1.12 being the subject of his presentation.
  • Mark Shuttleworth of Canonical fame had the last session of the morning. He was talking about snaps for application packaging, particularly in the context of IoT devices.
  • Once the long lunch queue had finally subsided there was a series of lightning talks but, standing about three meters from the speakers, I still couldn’t hear half of what was said against the background. I’ll have to wait for the replays.
  • After lunch, Jonathan Boulle from CoreOS talked about the rkt container runtime and, in particular, the work that has been done to integrate it in to Kubernetes. Undoubtedly factoring the Docker-specifics out of Kubernetes has been beneficial to the project. It remains to be seen whether rkt overtakes Docker as the runtime of choice.
  • George Lestaris (now working on Garden for Pivotal) was talking about the project to use the CernVM File System as the backing for a container layered file system. Consider what if the large proportion of the content of many images that is never touched by the running process was never pulled across the file system?
  • Liz Rice had borrowed Julz Friedman’s pitch on building containers from scratch with Go. It was interesting to compare Liz’s style of “oh look – what would happen if I tried this?” versus Julz’s “let me show you my skills”!
  • Gareth Robertson then took to the stage briefly to plug RC1 for Label Schema which seeks to standardise a base set of Docker image labels.
  • After another break, Ed Robinson from Reevoo gave an entertaining pitch on the Træf?k reverse proxy. He talked about cheese a little bit too much though as this was point a mouse started to repeatedly traverse the flooring in front of me!
  • Chris Van Tuin from Red Hat gave an OpenShift pitch, lightly disguised as a presentation on container security.
  • Dustin Kirkland, another Canonical employee was talking about LXD and HPC. My attention started to drift at this point as watching the activities of the mouse proved more entertaining!
  • Docker Captain Alex Ellis rounded off the day with a Swarm/Raspberry Pi/IoT demo. You can’t beat a few flashing lights to please the audience!

Everything was being recorded so keep checking back on the conference YouTube channel for any sessions that peak your interest.

Book Review: Mastering Docker and Monitoring Docker

Sunday, June 19th, 2016

Mastering DockerThe films on my flight to the US this week weren’t much to write home about so I ploughed through some of my Safari Queue backlog. Two of the Docker related books on my queue were from Packt Publishing.

The first was Mastering Docker by Scott Gallagher which I’ll confess that I only skim read. Parts of the book were already showing their age even though it was only published in December 2015 but that’s inevitable in such a fast-moving area. More problematic was that I found myself disagreeing with the author so much in just the first couple of chapters that I couldn’t believe anything I read after that. By way of just one example: the author asserts that commands are chained together in Dockerfiles to speed build times and seems to suggest that items added in one layer may be removed in another to keep the image size down. The structure of the book is also poor with material repeated throughout. It certainly doesn’t contain the depth to provide mastery in anything!

Monitoring DockerThe second book from the same stable was Monitoring Docker by Russ McKendrick. Maybe it’s just because this is an area that I know less about but I got on better with this book. It covers use of the Docker API (top, stats and logs), cAdvisor and aggregation with Prometheus. The author covers Zabbix in some detail which, I must confess, is a tool that I’d never even heard of, before a gushing endorsement for Sysdig. The book provides an overview of SaaS options (Sysdig Cloud, Datadog and New Relic) before closing with a detailed walk-through of setting up a containerized ELK stack for log aggregation. There are certainly options that the book didn’t cover but I felt it provided good coverage of the considerations to allow the reader to make informed decisions about what they should look for in a monitoring solution.

I also took a look at the early release of Kelsey Hightower’s Kubernetes: Up and Running from O’Reilly. It shows promise but, as it’s not due for release until October, there wasn’t enough content there yet to give a review.

WebSphere Liberty and IBM Containers: Part 3

Saturday, June 18th, 2016

Scaling up

In the first two posts in this series we covered the basics of starting a WebSphere Liberty on IBM Containers via the browser and then using the command line to deploy an application.

We’ve already seen some of the value-add that comes out of the box when running under IBM Containers. For example, at no point have we needed to be concerned with the underlying infrastructure on which the containers are running (beyond selecting a region). When we created an image it was scanned automatically for vulnerabilities. Each container was allocated its own private IP address accessible from any other container running in the same space – no need to set up and configure overlay networking here. We had control over whether we also wanted to assign a public IP and, if so, what ports should be exposed there. We also had easy access to metrics and standard out/error from the container.

So far we’ve only deployed a single container though. What happens when we hit the big time and need to scale up our application to meet demand? When we created our first container via the UI, you may remember that the Single option was selected at the top. Let’s go back and try out the Scalable alternative. From the catalog, navigate through Compute and Containers (remember that these instructions are based on the new Bluemix console). Select our existing demo image. Next, select the Scalable button at the top and give the container group a name. By default you’ll see that our group will contain two instances.

Rather than having a single IP associated with a container, this time we are asked to give a host name (on the mybluemix.net domain by default) for the group. Requests arriving at this host name will be load-balanced across the container instances in the group (reusing the gorouter from Cloud Foundry). One nice bonus of this approach is that it doesn’t eat in to our quota of public IPs! As the host name needs to be unique within the domain, I tend to include my initials as you’ll see in the screenshot below. Select 9080 as the HTTP port and then click Create.

Container group creation

Once the containers have started, the dashboard should show that you have two instances running:

Running instances

Right-click on the route shown in the Group details section and open it in a new tab. This should take you to a Liberty welcome page and, if you add the myLibertyApp context root, you should be able to see the application again. If you hit refresh a few times, although you won’t be able to tell with this application, your requests will be load-balanced across the two instances. If you return to the dashboard and switch to the Monitoring and Logs tab you can switch between the output for the instances and should, for example, be able to see the spike in network usage on the two containers when you made the requests.

If you return to the Overview tab you will see that there are plus and minus symbols either side of the current number of instances. These can be used to manually scale the number of instances. Click the + icon, click Save, and watch the creation of a new container in the group.

Manual scaling is all very well but it would be better if the number of instances scaled automatically up and down as required. If you’re deploying your containers in the London region then you’ll notice an extra tab at the top of the dashboard labelled Auto-Scaling. It’s only available in the London region at the moment because the service is still in beta (and so things may change a bit from what I’m describing here). Having selected this tab, click the plus icon labelled Create policy. Give the policy a name default and set the minimum and maximum instance values to 1 and 3. Add two CPU usage rules to scale up and down the number of instances as shown in the following diagram and then hit Create. Finally, select Attach to activate the policy for this scaling group.

Auto-Scaling

If you click the Auto-Scaling History tab you should see that a scaling action has taken place. We originally scaled up manually to 3 instances but, as the CPU usage is below our 60% limit, the number gets scaled down by one. If you wait another 5 minutes (the cool down period we specified), then you’ll see it get scaled down again to our minimum of 1.

Scaling history

And that concludes our tour of the scaling options in IBM Containers!

WebSphere Liberty on IBM Containers: Part 2

Monday, May 30th, 2016

Deploying an Application

In the first part of this series we looked at how to get started running a WebSphere Liberty image in IBM Containers using the Bluemix console.  The container was just running an empty Liberty server. In this post we’ll look at building and deploying an image that adds an application. I was originally intending to stick to using the browser for this post but I think it’s actually easier to do this from the command line. I’m going to assume that you already have Docker installed locally, either natively on Linux, via Docker Machine, or via the Docker for Mac/Windows beta.

First off we need an application to deploy and, just for novelty, I’m going to use the Liberty app accelerator to generate one. Select Servlet as the technology type and then, contrary as it may seem, select Deploy to Local and not Deploy to Bluemix. The latter option currently only supports deploying to the Instant Runtimes (Cloud Foundry) side of Bluemix. Finally, give your project a name and click Download Now.

Liberty App Accelerator

Unpack the zip file you downloaded and change to the top directory of the project. The app is built using maven. Perhaps you already have maven installed but this is a Docker blog post so we’re going to use the maven image from Docker Hub to build the app as follows:

$ docker run –rm -v $(pwd):/usr/src/mymaven \
    -w /usr/src/mymaven/myProject-application maven mvn clean package

This mounts the project on to a container running the maven image and runs the command mvn clean package in the myProject-application directory. Note: if you were doing this repeatedly you’d probably want to mount a maven cache in to the image as well and not download everything each time)

In the myProject-application/target directory you should now find that you have a file myArtifactId-application-1.0-SNAPSHOT.war. Copy this in to a new empty directory so that when we execute a Docker build we don’t end up uploading lots of other cruft to the Docker engine. Using your favourite editor, add the following Dockerfile to the same directory:

FROM websphere-liberty:webProfile7
COPY myArtifactId-application-1.0-SNAPSHOT.war /config/dropins

We have two choices now, we can either build a Docker image locally and then push that up to the IBM Containers registry, or we can build the image in IBM Containers. We’ll go for the latter option here as it involves pushing less bytes over the network.

There’s one niggle today that, to access your IBM Containers registry, you need to log in first using the Cloud Foundry CLI and IBM Containers plugin. We’re going to play the containerisation trick again here. Run the following commands to build an image with the CLI and plugin:

$ docker build -t cf https://git.io/vr7pl

Ideally I’d run this image as a stateless container but getting the right state written out to host in to the .cf, .ice and .docker directories is a bit finicky. Instead, we’re going to mount our current directory on to an instance of the image and perform the build inside:

$ docker run -it –rm $(pwd):/root/build cf
$ cd /root/build
$ cf login -a api.ng.bluemix.net

$ cf ic login
$ cf ic build -t demo .

Now we’re ready to run an instance of your newly built image. At this point you could switch back the to the UI but lets keep going with the command line. We’ll need to refer to the built image using the full repository name, including your namespace:

$ ns=$(cf ic namespace get)
$ cf ic run –name demo -P registry.ng.bluemix.net/$ns/demo

By default, containers are only assigned a private IP address. In order to access our new container we’ll need to request and assign a public IP. The cf ic ip command unfortunately returns a human friendly message, not a computer friendly one, hence the need for the grep/sed to retrieve the actual IP:

$ ip=$(cf ic ip request | grep -o ‘”.*”‘ | sed ‘s/”//g’)
$ cf ic ip bind $ip demo

Lastly, we can list the port and IP to point our browser at:

$ cf ic port demo 9080

Adding the root context myLibertyApp should give use the welcome page for the starter app.

Starter Welcome Page

Congratulations, you’ve successfully deployed an application to IBM Containers! In the next post in this series we’ll look at some of the additional features that the service provides, such as scaling groups and logging.

Two Days with Uncle Bob

Friday, May 13th, 2016

I’ve been lucky enough to spend the past two days in the presence of Robert C. Martin a.k.a. Uncle Bob for his Clean Code workshop at Skills Matter in London. I arrived at the very last-minute having decided to try out a Santander Cycle for the first time, only to discover that the promised docking station next to Code Node has disappeared under road works.

The workshop got off to a slow start as we spent over an hour going round the room indicating how long we’d been programming and what languages we’d used. This seemed to be just so that we could observe that, as well as a fair smattering of those in the first 5-10 years, there were many of us beyond our first flush of youth! That, and so that Bob could provide a potted history of various programming languages. This was a general theme for the course with Bob prefixing each module with an interlude on some aspect or other of astro or nuclear physics!

As a consequence of the above, if attendees were expecting to learn all of the content of the Clean Code book during the workshop then they’d leave disappointed. (Although a copy of the book was included in the exorbitant course fee.) What you did get was a good understanding of the values that underlie the practices covered by the book, the opportunity to watch the master at work refactoring and plenty of opportunity to ask questions first-hand.

I shan’t attempt to repeat the material but there were two main a-ha moments for me. The first was that, as a result of not doing test-first development, we’ve ended up with unit tests focused on each individual method. This has made them extremely fragile to refactoring which, in turn, means that either the tests quickly fall by the wayside or that refactoring just doesn’t happen. And that leads to the second learning point: to refactor mercilessly, extracting functions until every function does just one thing. I had fallen in to the trap of seeing the myriad of small methods as adding to the complexity. Bob’s argument is that, well-named, the methods allow you to quickly gained an understanding of what the code is doing at every level of abstraction. Based on the one exercise that we did during the workshop, I’d say that pairing is immensely helpful in determining what makes a good name. Anyway, lots to share back with my colleagues!

As an aside: I can heartily recommend the Hawksmoor Seven Dials if you are a fan of steak (although it has to be said that the corporate expense limit would have just about covered the meat on my plate!).